The Division of Constitutional Regulation and Political Science is organized in two knowledge areas: Constitutional Legislation and Political and Administration Sciences. On this position, for example, the Court docket has struck down state laws for failing to conform to the Contract Clause (see, e.g., Dartmouth School v. Woodward ) or the Equal Protection Clause (see, e.g., Brown v. Board of Schooling ), and it has invalidated federal legal guidelines for failing to arise underneath the Commerce Clause of the Structure (see, e.g., United States v. Lopez ).
Dinan additionally exhibits that, while the Founders favored a minimalist design and centered exclusively on protecting people from authorities action, state constitution makers have often adopted more detailed constitutions, typically specifying constructive rights that depend on authorities motion for their enforcement.
East European Case Reporter of Constitutional Legislation (Den Bosch, The Netherlands: BookWorld Publications , 1993- )(covers Lithuania, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Romania, Hungary, Slovenia circumstances in English translation; website online contains alphabetical cumulative topic index; “twice a year the East European Case Reporter of Constitutional Law reveals English translations of essentially the most attention-grabbing landmark circumstances, decided by constitutional courts in Japanese and Central Europe, on subjects similar to Abortion, Religion and Democracy”).
Human dignity is a revolutionary constitutional concept as a result of it rejects earlier methods of conceptualizing the connection between rulers and ruled, by which the rulers both owed no duty to the dominated or owed solely those duties that were voluntarily undertaken through some affirmative act.